He takes pains to point out that this friendliness must be balanced, however. Aristotle also indicates that friends are the only refuge when misfortunes and poverty strike (108). Friendships are considered not only necessary, but also noble, since people always praise those who show love for their friends. It is necessary to life, since no one would choose to live without friends even if he had all other material goods. 1 For friendship is a virtue, 2 or involves virtue; and also it is one of the most indispensable requirements of life. Aristotle’s explanation of the applicability of both unwritten laws and legal laws is enlightening on the ways in which friendship takes the place of justice. of Happiness) men seem to form their notions from the different modes of life, as we might naturally expect: the many and most low conceive it to be pleasure, and hence they are content with the life of sensual enjoyment.” #3: “It is plain then that the good or ill fortunes of their friends do affect the dead somewhat.” The friendship that exists between the king and all his subjects is dependent on the benefits conferred, and Aristotle likens it to the friendship of the father to his son, the only difference being the greatness of all the benefits conferred. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. in the political form of friendship the shoemaker gets a return for his shoes in proportion to his worth, and the weaver and all other craftsmen do the same. The only reason why such people communicate is for them to transact business. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! However, Aristotle does notsay that we should aim at happiness, but ratherthat we do aim at happiness. For without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods; even rich men and those in possession of Laws exist as a key part of the structure of any community, and laws are, at base, put in place so as to maintain virtue and stave off vice. At the core of this view of politics stands a sense of friendship. This idea feeds into Aristotle’s emphasis on the importance of politics to human life—the meeting of multiple minds to deliberate on how to increase the happiness of themselves and their community. He also notes that unlike animals, man’s associations in the form of couples are not for reproduction purposes only, but for many other purposes in life. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Nicomachean Ethics has been divided into the following sections: Book I [65k] Book II [50k] Book III [74k] Book IV [69k] Book V [74k] Book VI [55k] Book VII [78k] Book VIII [70k] Book IX [66k] Book X [71k] It is also thought to be a great thing to have many friends. And we enlist partners in deliberation on large issues when we distrust our own ability to discern [the right answer]. Aristotle says that just as virtuous behavior improves an individual, friends have the potential to generate improvements upon each other’s lives. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. D. Ross. You can view samples of our professional work here. In other words, even where legal laws have been put in place for political reasons, friendship is needed in order for the ethical aspects of justice to be put into consideration. Even those people in possession of all the goods that they need in life, including high office, need friends. Lovable objects are those that pleasant, good or useful. Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. In this sense, friendship is said to be similar to the concept of equality. Each of these constitutions may involve friendship just as much as it involves justice. In loving friends, men indicate their love for what is good for themselves. A balanced friendliness with strangers need not entail bending over backward for others, merely that we treat them as we would a friend, without expecting the true underlying fondness we have for actual friends. Aristotle addresses these questions on Friendship in Books 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Most people appear to like being loved instead of loving, mainly because of ambition. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. This implies that there is a limit of friendship to which justice does not apply. Looking for a flexible role? Reference this. Aristotle details three types of friendships—of usefulness, of pleasure, and complete friendship. Aristotle says that just as virtuous behavior improves an individual, friends have the potential to generate improvements upon each other’s lives. It is also more offensive to deny one’s brother assistance than to refuse to help a stranger. Friendship Justice and Judgment Community Wisdom and Knowledge Life, Consciousness and Existence Choice. Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle, focuses on the good in life and how one can achieve it. Similarly, it is impossible to guard prosperity without friends. For Aristotle, friendships appear to be holding states together, and lawgivers are more careful about friendships than for justice. The same case applies to the duties of comrades and their fellow citizens. Of these three, only complete friendship is the real thing. Here, the impression made is that love is merely a feeling, and friendship a state of character. Aristotle elaborates on his idea of friendship, noting that a key feature of companionship is collaboration. In the least, friendship exists in its worst form, such that in a form of government such as tyranny, there is too little or no friendship at all. If people did not the terms that bind them in various forms of friendships, there would be no need for justice. Additionally, the arguments made here explain both the ethical and political importance of friendship for Aristotle. Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. As we get older, we learn about each other’s foundational beliefs, moral compass, dedication to issues, commitment to family, social and political outlooks, and desire to help others. Aristotle's account of Friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics A. D. M. WALKER The Nicomachean Ethics, as is well known, distinguishesthree types of friendship-the friendship of goodness, the friendship of pleasure, and the friendship of utility. As you read, takes notes on what differentiates … Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human being. The truest form of justice according to Aristotle is thought to be an enduring friendly quality (118). Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Aristotle completes the logical analysis by saying that in becoming a friend, a man ideally becomes good to his friends (129). For this reason, friends are formed on the basis of the good and pleasure that is produced, which has to be useful. Even if justice was to exist in such a type of constitution, people would not appreciate it since the spirit of friendship is lacking. To this extent, the tendency to form marriages arise from not just pleasure but also utility. To be friends, then, there is a need for feelings to be mutually recognized as wishes of goodwill to each other. The demands of justice, therefore, appear to increase with the insensitivity of the level of friendship. #2: “Now of the Chief Good (i.e. When a person is buying merchandise, has to meet the seller, but the relationship that is required is rather shallow. Friendship depends on community, and brothers and comrades tend to have many things in common, including, in some cases, property. Particularly, he indicates that man has a tendency to form couples and households more readily than even cities. In his view, true friendship is not defined by what people need or want from each other because those things are likely to change with time. In Aristotle’s view, in every form of friendship, there has to be some form of association. Whatever is good for a man, though, becomes the object of his friendship. All work is written to order. Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The words Eudemian and Nicomachean were added later, perhaps because the former was edited by his friend, Eudemus, and the latter by his son, Nicomachus. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Aristotle categorizes friendships into three categories: friendships of utility, friendships of pleasure, and friendships of the good (107). His goal in the Ethics isnot to tell us that we ought to live happy, successful lives, butto tell us what this life consists of. Most people aim at being loved since this is akin to being honored. In friendships or exchanges where each person receives a different benefit, it is important that both parties feel they are being justly treated. This type of friendship is, by nature, self-regarding and selfishly motivated, though mutually satisfactory. The Nicomachean Ethics of Friendship based on goodness: This type of friendship emerges when both people see the good in each other. Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. This paper shows that the arguments that Aristotle makes in support of this assertion is convincing. This is because, many people may have goodwill for those they have not necessarily judged to be useful or good. By living as part of a community and abiding by that community’s laws, a person receives a framework in which to practice living virtuously. Therefore, friendship does a lot of justice by making everyone feel honored. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Students. Aristotle's account of Friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics A. D. M. WALKER The Nicomachean Ethics, as is well known, distinguishes three types of friendship - the friendship of goodness, the friendship of pleasure, and the friendship of utility. The legal type is one where the terms are fixed, while the unwritten one is the one where moral values are conventionally applied. Here, Aristotle advocates for friendliness and civility even with people who are not our close friends. It is more terrible for one to kill one’s mother than to kill any other citizen. The best friendship is the one which is caused by love of the good; it has the qualities of the friendship caused by love of utility and the friendship caused by love of the pleasant and more. No form of justice can be said to have taken place in such engagements, regardless of the outcome of the bargaining process. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. The necessary characteristics of the ultimate good are that it is complete, final, self-sufficient and continuous. The main gist of Aristotle’s argument is on the relationship between friendship and justice (102). It appears that where one applies, the other cannot apply. Since happiness is an activity, friendship’s role in happiness must also be active. In this case, goodwill amounts to friendship only when the feeling is reciprocated (120). Nicomachean Ethics Deliberation concerns what is usually [one way rather than another], where the outcome is unclear and the right way to act is undefined. Aristotle begins the work by positing that there exists some ultimate good toward which, in the final analysis, all human actions ultimately aim. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Aristotle’s account of friendship (φιλία‎) extends over nearly two books of the Nicomachean Ethics, granting friendship a central place in his account of an ethical life. For older people, it is useful for ministering to their needs as well as supplementing the various activities that could be failing as a result of weakness. The majority believe that things such as pleasure, wealth, and honor are considered happiness. He asserts that if people stay friends, they do not have any need for justice, but if they maintain justice, they also need friendship in addition. However, the few cultivated people, the virtuous, understand that happiness comes from friendship… As long as these friends maintain their similar characters, their relationship endures because its main motive is care for each other. From the arguments that Aristotle makes, friendship and justice appear to be concerned with similar objects, and expressed between the same persons. Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Marcus Aurelius - How to Think Clearly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eB5zqN01oo --- At age 17, Aristotle enrolled in the Platonic Academy. The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle is a great book, evryone one should read it because Aristotle manages to think of individual happiness in connection with the happiness of the city. Each of them, then, both love what is good for himself, while at the same time making an equal return through goodwill and pleasantness. It is on this basis that he indicates that when men are friends, they need justice. His arguments make the concept of friendship to predominate that of justice. Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics (Translated by Ross, David. At the same time, he seems to suggest that justice cannot take place in a vacuum – there has to be a friendly relationship of sorts between all the participants in the legal process within a given jurisdiction. It also implies that when there is justice, friendship becomes a necessity, such that when the concept of justice is introduced into a scenario where friendship is at play, both elements tend to have an equal extension. The reason why Aristotle brings into perspective the aspect of constitutionality is to shed light on the concept of friendship as it applies to governments. For the young, friendships are a way of avoiding straying. With friendship, there is love. Friendship of the good involves the enjoyment of each other’s characters. Company Registration No: 4964706. Aristotle also carries the association debate even further, noting that friendships form the basis of humankind’s very existence. However, when they are just, they require justice as well. Start studying Three Types of Friendship - Nicomachean Ethics. In the deviation-forms of constitution, justice hardly exists; the same case applies to friendship. Although both monarchy and timocracy are a one-man rule systems, the main difference between them is that the tyrant looks at his own advantage while the king looks to the advantage of his subjects. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? This is because of the lack of anything to be shared between the ruler and the ruled. Study for free with our range of university lectures! In Aristotle’s view, there is thought to be a certain form of justice as well as friendship in every community. Millions of books are just a click away on BN.com and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. However, he makes his argument clear by giving examples of duties of parents to children, as well as those of brothers to each other, which he says are never the same. How are these three typesof friendship supposed to be related to one another? Everything is left in the hands of the two people who have become friends of convenience in order to transact business. Book 8. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. Aristotle addresses these questions on Friendship in Books 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Friendships of utility are those friendships that are formed with no regard to the other person. that friends are no threat at all to self-sufficiencyin his solution to the paradox of the happy man’s need for friends in NE 9.9 (and in 1.7 as commonly interpreted).7 A variety of strategies could be used either to alleviate or to ac-cept the tension in the Nicomachean Ethics between the apparently full In Book 8, Aristotle says that without friends, nobody would choose life. Men tend to wish well those they love, not because of a feeling, but as a result of a certain state of character. Aristotle ventures into what appears like a contradiction when he says that claims of justice tend to differ. Although friendships of utility are always full of complaints, this does not necessarily mean that an injustice has been committed against the complainant; rather, it is normal for the process of bargaining and haggling to be characterized by tough talk and claims of unfair pricing. How are these three types of friendship … Here, rather than the friendship of fellow citizens or political collaborators, Aristotle discusses the friendship of truly close friends. Typically, quarrels may result in this friendship only. On the basis of this argument, it is possible for one to draw a parallel between the principles of justice and the principles of friendship. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Injustice increases when it is exhibited towards people who are considered friends in the fuller sense. However, a clash emerges in this argument, especially in determining whether men love the good or what they consider good for them. In the first type, friendship based on utility, people associate for their mutual usefulness. Book 8, Chapter 1. The different kinds of friendships may be cleared if attention was shifted to the object of love, in which case only the lovable objects can be loved. However, nothing prevents various evils arising, such that the assertion that ‘he would never wrong’ seems to be inaccurate. People who drink beer together are said to be in this friendship. For instance, it sounds more offensive to defraud a comrade than to defraud a fellow citizen. The best constitution, according to Aristotle, is monarchy, while the worst is timocracy. 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